Recent advances in combinatorial protein engineering have made it possible to develop antibody-based and non-Ig protein scaffolds that can potentially substitute for most whole antibody-associated properties. In theory, many different natural human protein backbones are suitable to be used as recombinant templates for engineering : antibodyderived scaffolds, carrier proteins that display a single binding interface, backbones that provide a rigid core structure suitable for grafting loops or protein scaffolds allowing the incorporation of variable loops in a favorable 3D configuration. In practice however, only a few have yielded the necessary properties to be translated into ‘druggable Biologicals’. Amongst these properties, potential broad specificities towards any kind of target, ease of production, small size, good tolerability and low immunogenicity are essential and will be discussed in this review. Intellectual property is another key issue for the development of these protein scaffolds; although circumventing antibody-associated patents is often a major if not primary goal, clear advantages compared to whole antibodies must be presented to translate scaffold discovery into successful therapeutic drug candidates. In this review, a particular emphasis will be given to the most validated scaffolds that have reached the clinical development phase. Although the question of their immunogenicity is still open, preliminary clinical data do not point to any particular adverse immunogenic reactions although these are highly dependent on dosage, administration route and therapeutic indication. Finally, some of the emerging Biotechs developing protein scaffolds have been associated during the last two years with successful acquisitions by Big Pharmas and we will speak on the perspective positions of these proteins within the global Biologicals market.