Background: Inflammatory process is one of the mechanisms by which our body upholds us from pathogens such as parasites, bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms. Inflammatory stimuli activate many intracellular signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway and three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways which are mediated through extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. The p38 has evolved as an enticing target in treating many persistent inflammatory diseases. Hence, designing novel p38 inhibitors targeting MAPK pathways has acquired significance.
Objective: Peruse to identify the lead target to discover novel p38MAPK inhibitors with different scaffolds having improved selectivity over the prototype drugs.
Methods: Structure and the binding sites of p38MAPK were focused. Various scaffolds designed for inhibition and the molecules which have entered the clinical trials are discussed.
Results: This review aspires to present the available information on the structure and the 3D binding sites of p38MAPK, various scaffolds designed for imidazole, urea, benzamide, azoles, quinoxaline, chromone, ketone as a potent p38MAPK inhibitors and their SAR studies and the molecules which have entered the clinical trials.
Conclusion: Development of successful selective p38MAPK inhibitors in inflammatory diseases are in progress despite of all challenges. It was speculated that p38MAPK also plays an important role in treating diseases such as neuroinflammation, arterial inflammation, vascular inflammation, cancer and so on which are posing the world with treatment challenges. In this review, clinical trials of drugs are discussed related to inflammatory and its related diseases. Research is in progress to design and develop novel p38MAPK inhibitors with minimal side effects.