Mechanism and Development of Modern General Anesthetics

Author(s): Xiaoxuan Yang, Anita Luethy, Honghai Zhang, Yan Luo, Qingsheng Xue, Buwei Yu*, Han Lu*.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 19 , Issue 31 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Before October 1846, surgery and pain were synonymous but not thereafter. Conquering pain must be one of the very few strategies that has potentially affected every human being in the world of all milestones in medicine.

Methods: This review article describes how various general anesthetics were discovered historically and how they work in the brain to induce sedative, hypnosis and immobility. Their advantages and disadvantages will also be discussed.

Results: Anesthesia is a relatively young field but is rapidly evolving. Currently used general anesthetics are almost invariably effective, but nagging side effects, both short (e.g., cardiac depression) and long (e.g., neurotoxicity) term, have reawakened the call for new drugs.

Conclusion: Based on the deepening understanding of historical development and molecular targets and actions of modern anesthetics, novel general anesthetics are being investigated as potentially improved sedative-hypnotics or a key to understand the mechanism of anesthesia.

Keywords: General anesthetics, Development, Mechanism, GABAA receptors, Chloroform, Ethec.

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VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 31
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1568026619666191114101425
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