Background: Microwave irradiation in organic synthesis has attracted great interests for
scientists to synthesize various biological compounds owing to the advantages of shorter reaction
times, higher yields, environmental friendliness and operation simplicity.
Methods: Research and online content related to microwave synthesis were reviewed and the key
methodologies are brought forward in this review. Guidelines for meaningful synthesis in organic
chemistry by microwave irradiation are illustrated.
Results: Only those methodologies that involve microwave assisted reaction during synthesis in a
combined manner have been discussed. Some recent syntheses that are microwave-accelerated with
regard to heterocyclic moieties are summarized.
Conclusion: The considerable decrease in reaction time, the smaller overall mass that is heated, the
diverse category of compounds that are synthesized, microwave-enabled one-pot synthesis mostly under
solvent-free conditions is a more viable technique compared with traditional synthetic methods. In
recent years, this technique has attracted great interests for scientists to synthesize various biological
compounds owing to the advantages of shorter reaction times, higher yields, environmental friendliness
and operation simplicity. The basic principles of green synthesis are taken into account resulting
in the design of various new eco-friendly approaches. To address such challenges the application of
non-traditional activation methods are utilized, such as microwave irradiation which is a major tool in
green synthesis and engineering. Based on the focus of this work, only methods that apply microwave
assisted reaction have been discussed in a combined manner.