Background: Numerous studies have shown a significant association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), two pathologies affecting millions of people worldwide. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are two conditions common to these diseases, also affecting the activity of the serpin Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), but a possible common role for this serpin in T2D and AD remains unclear.
Objective: To explore the possible regulatory networks linking ACT to T2D and AD.
Materials and Methods: A bibliographic search was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Open-i, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SpringerLink for data indicating or suggesting association among T2D, AD, and ACT. Searched terms like “alpha-1-antichymotrypsin”, “type 2 diabetes”, “Alzheimer's disease”, “oxidative stress”, “pro-inflammatory mediators” among others were used. Moreover, common therapeutic strategies between T2D and AD as well as the use of ACT as a therapeutic target for both diseases were included.
Results: ACT has been linked with the development and maintenance of T2D and AD and studies suggest their participation through the activation of inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress, mechanisms also associated with both diseases. Likewise, evidences indicate that diverse therapeutic approaches are common to both diseases.
Conclusion: Inflammatory and oxidative stresses constitute a crossroad for T2D and AD, where ACT could play an important role. In-depth research on ACT involvement in these two dysfunctions could generate new therapeutic strategies for T2D and AD.
Keywords: Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, type 2-diabetes, alzheimer's disease, inflammation, pro-inflammatory mediators, oxidative stresses.