This paper reviews bioactive peptides, biogenic peptides, opioid peptides, immunostimulating peptides, mineral soluble peptides, antihypertensive peptides and antimicrobial peptides originating from food materials and enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins. Antihypertensive peptides are extensively reviewed and have been divided into angiotensin Iconverting enzyme inhibitory peptides and others. These peptides are produced in the enzymatic hydrolysate of treated food materials such as milk, animal and fish meat, maize, wheat, soybeans and egg, and also from microbe-fermented products. Peptides with strong antihypertensive effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats are discussed and are divided into high and low angiotensin Iconverting enzyme inhibitory activities. In addition, new topics from our studies on antihypertensive peptides are introduced. Efficacies of these peptides in clinical studies and differences with medicinal substances are summarized. Recent studies in this area shown the possibility of using biogenic peptides for improvements in treatment or prevention of hypertension.