Introduction: The housefly (Musca domestica) is an important host for various pathogenic
bacteria, including the ESKAPE group, and acts as a reservoir for transmitting resistance factors. In
this regard, this study was performed in order to survey the role of houseflies as a mechanical vector
for ESKAPE pathogens and antibiotic resistance profiles of these strains in the four teaching hospitals
and rural areas in Babol, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 280 adult house flies were collected
with a sterilized nylon net.
Methods: All samples were put inside separately in a sterile tube and anesthetized using freezing at
0ᵒC for 5 minutes. Bacterial isolates were identified from the external and internal surfaces. The antibiotic
susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method. A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa,
and Enterobacter isolates were not detected in rural samples. Only one methicillin-resistance S. aureus
was found in rural flies. In hospitals, the prevalence of the ESKAPE pathogens in the Cuticular surface
and GI were 22.9% and 22.1%, respectively.
Results: In total, the highest and lowest frequency rate was related to P. aeruginosa (6.1%) and A.
baumannii (1.1%). Also, 66.7%, 5.9%, and 12.5% of A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter
were resistant to imipenem, respectively. 21.4% of E. faecium were resistant to vancomycin. In total,
63 (22.5%) bacterial species collected from both the cuticular surface and GI, 29 (46%) were multidrug-
Conclusion: Houseflies obtained from hospitals may be involved in the distribution of drug-resistant
bacteria and may increase the potential of human exposure to drug-resistant organisms.