Exploration of Nanoethosomal Transgel of Naproxen Sodium for the Treatment of Arthritis

Author(s): Farzana Anjum, Foziyah Zakir, Devina Verma, Mohd Aqil, Manvi Singh, Pooja Jain, Mohd Aamir Mirza, Md. Khalid Anwer, Zeenat Iqbal*

Journal Name: Current Drug Delivery

Volume 17 , Issue 10 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: The present work aimed to develop an ethosomal gel of naproxen sodium for the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis.

Objective: In the present work, we have explored the potential of ethosomes to deliver naproxen into deeper skin strata. Further, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen ethosomal formulation was assessed using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model.

Methods: Naproxen sodium nanoethosomes were prepared using different proportions of lipoid S100 (50mg-200mg), ethanol (20-50%) and water, and were further characterized on the basis of vesicle morphology, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation studies.

Results: The optimized ethosomal formulation was found to have 129 ± 0.01 nm particle size, 0.295 Polydispersity Index (PDI), -3.29 mV zeta potential, 88% entrapment efficiency and 96.573% drug release in 24 hours. TEM and SEM analysis of the optimized formulation showed slightly smooth spherical structures. The Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that ethosomes could easily infiltrate into deeper dermal layers (upto 104.9μm) whereas the hydroalcoholic solution of the drug could penetrate up to 74.9μm. Further, the optimized ethosomal formulation was incorporated into 1% carbopol 934 gel base and optimized wherein the transdermal flux was found to be approximately 10 times more than the hydroethanolic solution. Also, the in-vivo pharmacodynamic study of the optimized ethosomal gel exhibited a higher percentage inhibition of swelling paw edema than marketed diclofenac gel.

Conclusion: The ethosomal gel was successfully developed and has shown the potential to be a good option for the replacement of conventional therapies of rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Arthritis, cutaneous delivery, ethosome gel, naproxen sodium, penetration, skin permeation.

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