Background: The Human Genome Project has unleashed the power of genomics
in clinical practice as a choice of individualized therapy, particularly in cancer
treatment. Pharmacogenomics is an interdisciplinary field of genomics that deals with
drug response, based on individual genetic makeup.
Objective: The main genetic events associated with carcinogenesis activate oncogenes or
inactivate tumor-suppressor genes. Therefore, drugs should be specific to inactivate or
regulate these mutant genes and their protein products for effective cancer treatment. In
this review, we summarize how polymedication decisions in cancer treatments based on
the evaluation of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) polymorphisms are applied for pharmacogenetic
assessment of anticancer therapy outcomes.
Results: However, multiple genetic events linked, inactivating a single mutant gene product,
may be insufficient to inhibit tumor progress. Thus, genomics and pharmacogenetics
directly influence a patient’s response and aid in guiding clinicians to select the safest and
most effective combination of medications for a cancer patient from the initial prescription.
Conclusion: This review outlines the roles of oncogenes, the importance of cytochrome
P450 (CYP450) in cancer susceptibility, and its impact on drug metabolism, proposing
combined approaches to achieve precision therapy.