The proteasome inhibition has been proved to be effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other malignancies. In
addition to direct antitumor effects, proteasome inhibition also exerts strong effects on immune cells, such as T cells, B cells and DCs.
Therefore, proteasome inhibition, through the utilization of small molecule drugs like bortezomib, could be used therapeutically to modulate
immune responses in transplantation. In the current review, we discuss the emerging data, both preclinical and clinical, of using proteasome
inhibition in treating complications of transplantation, such as antibody-mediated organ rejection (AMR) and graft-versus-host
disease (GVHD). The therapy based on proteasome inhibition may present substantial opportunities as new therapeutic paradigms in