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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

An Updated Review on the Most Common Agents Causing Toxic Optic Neuropathies

Author(s): Weronika Wasinska-Borowiec, Kaveh Abri Aghdam, Jukka Matias Saari and Andrzej Grzybowski

Volume 23, Issue 4, 2017

Page: [586 - 595] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170124113826

Price: $65


Background: Toxic optic neuropathies (TONs) often present with a gradual and bilateral decrease in visual acuity, scotomas and optic disc pallor. Obtaining an accurate history is the critical first step in determining the etiology of TONs.

Methods: This updated review contains a thorough analysis of the current PubMed-indexed literature on the most common agents responsible for TONs, including methanol, ethambutol, amiodarone, linezolid, tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors.

Results: The reviewed articles are mainly case reports presenting new and controversial aspects of the above agents. New treatment strategies, such as erythropoietin for methanol optic neuropathy, are being proposed for TONs, a condition that was previously regarded as untreatable.

Conclusion: TONs could cause significant disability due to visual impairment. In case of early diagnosis and drug withdrawal, most TONs are treatable. Patients need to be appropriately counseled, and prescribing physicians should be especially made aware of TON-inducing medications.

Keywords: Amiodarone, ethambutol, linezolid, methanol, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, toxic optic neuropathy, tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors.

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