Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) (also referred to as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is expressed by mainly inflammatory cells and endothelial cells. The expression level is upregulated after proinflammatory stimuli and tissue injury which are associated with atherosclerotic lesion. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease starting with accumulation of lipids, lipoproteins, and immune cells in the arterial wall. MCP-1 has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and considerable evidence supports that the monocyte containing MCPs and macrophage influences the growth of other cell types within the atherosclerotic lesion. This review will focus on the general structure features of MCP-1 and its role in atherosclerosis.