Bronchoscopic procedures are at times intricate and the patients often very ill. These factors and an airway shared with the pulmonologist present a clear challenge to anesthesiologists. The key to success lies in the understanding of both the underlying pathology and procedure being performed combined with frequent two-way communication between the anesthesiologist and the pulmonologist. Above all, vigilance and preparedness are paramount.Topics discussed in this review include anesthesia for advanced diagnostic procedures as well as for interventional/ therapeutic procedures. The latter includes bronchoscopic tracheal balloon dilation, tracheobronchial stenting, endobronchial electrocautery, bronchoscopic cryotherapy and other techniques. Special situations, such as tracheoesophageal fistula and mediastinal masses, are also considered.