ISSN (Print): 1573-4137
ISSN (Online): 1875-6786
Volume 17, 6 Issues, 2021
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ISSN (Print): 1573-4137
ISSN (Online): 1875-6786
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Special Issue Submission
I would like to congratulate you on the great work on our paper in Current Nanoscience.
All the people in Bentham Science have been very helpful, prompt when I needed assistance and have exhibited a high level of professionalism.
It is very likely that I will consider your journal for the submission of papers in the future and I will recommend it to my colleagues.
22 Abstract Ahead of Print are available electronically
47 Articles Ahead of Print are available electronically
Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanofibers, are grasping immense interest in diverse fields due to
their impressive features [1-4]. These nanomaterials are considered cornerstones of nanotechnology and nanoscience. The
interest is developed by the fact that various features, including conducting, optical, magnetic, antimicrobial, emerge at such a
low scale [5-7]. High surface area and quantum effects are playing a major role in blessing nanomaterials with superior
properties over their counterparts . Nanomaterials have been successfully utilized in medical fields as bactericidal agents and
the development of a controlled drug delivery system. Biomaterials, including biopolymers, is another broadly targeted and
explored area. The broad range of synthetic strategies, extraction from natural resources, production from recycled wastes,
nontoxic nature, easy handling, physicochemical modification, and development of their composites with multiple materials
have led to their large-scale production and applications in medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental fields.
Both nanomaterials and polymers, despite their effective properties and applications, face certain limitations in diverse
fields. Lack of bactericidal, biocompatible, conducting, transparent, thermos-mechanical, and several other features in either of
these limit their applications to a great extent. In the recent two decades, the dilemma has been tried to resolve by developing
their composites for impregnating additional features for targeted applications. The researchers have reported developed
nanobiocomposites through a number of approaches. The nanomaterials owing to their small size, impregnate in the porous
geometry of polymers besides binding to various functional groups . The nanobiocomposites have received applications in
medical, pharmaceutical, environmental, conducting, waste degradation, food, textile, and numerous other commercial fields.
The microbial resistance to antibiotics is increasing at a very high rate. This has indeed forced researchers to explore new
drugs, drug-carrying, and safely delivering materials. While opting for multiple alternatives, the focus has been highly grasped
by the nano and biomaterials, including the composites. Metals, metal oxides, natural products, synthetic compounds, and
polymers have been witnessed for their effective antibiotic role against pathogens [9, 10]. The major problem associated with
such materials is their conventional synthesis routes and processing methodologies, leading to the development of toxic
materials, by-products, and pollutants that negatively influence the living environment. Green synthetic routes and waste
recycling approaches can somehow overcome these effects and improve the large-scale production and commercialization
processes. The synthesis of environmentally friendly nanomaterials, biopolymers, and their bionanocomposites will not only
reduce the environmental and economic problems but will also enhance their scaled-up applications and commercialization.
Bacterial cellulose (BC), a biopolymer, for example, has been reported to produce from the waste of fruits, vegetables,
agricultural industries, and so on [11, 12]. Similarly, various plant extracts have been utilized as reducing agents in synthesizing
nanoparticles . Such approaches are not only cutting the production costs but also leading to green synthetic routes.
Additionally, the BC-NPs composites have been effectively utilized in medical, pharmaceutical, food, environmental, and other
related fields. A number of such examples can be exemplified from recent literature where the research has been shifted
towards the green synthesis of bionanocomposites for targeted applications in multiple fields.
This special issue is specifically focused on the development of nanomaterials, biopolymers, andcomposites for effective
applications in medical and environmental fields. Being the area of the prime focus of day-to-day life, the studies compiled here
will catch the immense interest of the researchers.
Titanium alloy has been widely used in biomedical field due to its low elastic modulus, excellent corrosion resistance and
biocompatibility. With the continuous aging of the population, the requirements for the materials utilized in biomedical devices
are increasing dramatically. In the contents of this topic, many endeavors are made regarding the basic synthesis methods,
microstructure, mechanical properties and potential applications of titanium alloy materials in biomedical field. Further
research and development of titanium alloys in the biomedical field will lead to novel titanium alloys and advanced
technologies, which will improve the quality of life of patients. In addition, further progress in future research will require
collaboration between different research fields, including materials, biomechanics, and cell biology.
In the aspect of advanced biomaterial processing methods, although titanium alloy has excellent mechanical and biological
properties, its direct use as an orthopedic material still faces many deficiencies, such as poor osseointegration ability and
inflammation caused by inductive rejection reaction. Therefore, Wang et al.  summarized surface modification methods to
improve osseointegration and antimicrobial activity, and found that the multi-scale biomimetic microscopic surface is
beneficial to osseointegration. In addition, Liu et al.  revealed that 3D printing has been found to have the potential as an
advanced material processing method to create prototypes with complex structures, which could replicate original tissues and
organs as closely as possible, or provide appropriate cell-material interfaces.
In terms of titanium alloys after surface modification, Wang et al. investigated the progress of multi-scale surface
modification of titanium implants to accelerate osseointegration. The application of several multiscale methods in improving
the wettability, roughness and biological activity of implant surface was discussed. In addition, the biological properties and
clinical application prospects of titanium alloy treated by different technologies were compared . Wen et al.  investigated
the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) and (TiB+TiC)/TC4 alloys treated by shot peening, and
found that shot peening can improve the surface properties of titanium alloys and titanium matrix composites. Cui et al. 
found that the corrosion environment, electric potential, temperature and alloy composition were the main factors affecting the
pitting corrosion of titanium and its alloys. At the same time, the β -type titanium alloy had the best pitting corrosion
performance among the three kinds of titanium alloys.
In the aspect of biological response and potential applications of titanium alloys, Wang et al. investigated the effect of
surface modification on the osseointegration. The surface wettability, roughness and chemical composition were the bridge
connecting the physical and chemical properties and biological properties of titanium alloy surface, which would directly affect
the osteointegration activities such as platelet activation, protein adsorption, three-dimensional fibrin clot cross-linking,
osteoblastic migration, collagen deposition and bone matrix formation . Liu et al. found that the development of
biomaterials, structural design and further improvements in 3D bio-printing technology will drive the development of 3D
printing in cells .
The contributions of the above work were summarized as following: the characterization methods for structure and
mechanical properties of titanium matrix composite ; multi-scale surface modification of titanium alloys [1, 3]; the residual
stress distribution of titanium alloys after shot peening treatment ; 3D printing technology in tissue engineering ; study on
pitting corrosion of titanium and its alloys . These research topics focused on the recent development of titanium alloys,
surface modification of titanium alloys and advanced biomaterial production methods, and all the results presented would
promote the development of titanium alloys and biomaterial.
Polymers play an important role in the development of materials for energy conversion and sensoristic applications because
of their low cost and appealing electronic, catalytic and mechanical properties. Their nanostructuring is becoming a hot topic
due to the possibility to enhance the performance of sensors and energy conversion devices where polymers are active
components [1, 2]. The aim of this special issue is to focus on current research efforts in the development of nanostructured
polymer materials for energy conversion and sensoristic applications with particular attention to novel materials or synthetic
In a critic and comprehensive review on the nanostructuring of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) , a vast collection of related
papers is provided for the consideration of the interested readers. Attention is paid to the electrochemical methods for
deposition of polypyrrole (PPy), nanostructures and potential applications by analyzing the effect of different physico-chemical
parameters, electro-oxidative conditions including template-based or template-less depositions and cathodic polymerization.
Diverse interfaces and morphologies of polymer nanodeposits are addressed and discussed. The collected and discussed
literature demonstrates that a simple combination between the intrinsic properties of polypyrrole, the advantages of the
electropolymerization process  and potentiality of nanostructuring can produce high-performance PPy electrodes for
technological devices, such as fuel cell, lithium batteries and supercapacitors. This review revealed that up to now, few papers
deal with the performance evaluation of nanostructured polypyrrole electrodes prepared via electrodeposition, and further
works are required to be published including results about real application of PPy electrodes besides the characterization. The
review is aimed to encourage future research studies on these topics in order to cover the still present literature lacking in the
direct application of electrodeposited PPy nanostructures as electrode. More data of energy devices employing PPy
nanostructures from electrodeposition are required to build a robust database and baseline performances to compare the
prospective effectiveness of the synthesis methods and to suggest the most convenient setup.
An important theme is the electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers  by using green solvents, such as deep
eutectic solvents (DESs), a new generation of ionic liquids, promoted as “green solvents” due to their negligible volatility and
inflammability, environmental benignity and wide electrochemical stability. A commonly used quaternary ammonium salt is
choline chloride and hydrogen bond donors are exemplified by ethylene glycol, urea, malonic acid or glycerol. The use of these
ionic media as solvents for electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers could influence the polymer properties and
reduce their economic cost. Therefore, the most recent results regarding the electropolymerization of common conductive
polymers such as polypyrrole, polyaniline and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) involving choline chloride-based ionic liquids
are presented and deeply discussed. The use of these low cost eutectic mixtures based on readily available components is
expected to contribute to the promotion of more sustainable technological processes easier to be developed at a larger scale.
Finally, a review of thirty-six articles is dedicated to molecular imprinted photonic polymeric hydrogels/films for sensing
applications devoted to a variety of analytes, such as cinchonie, melanine, estradiol , amino acids, glucose, caffeine,
atropine, cholesterol, bisphenol A and cholic acid. The combination of artificial recognition material such as molecular
imprinted polymer with highly ordered photonic crystals leads to the formation of efficient colorimetric sensors working with a
visual color change. This makes them very cost effective and reduces the use of expensive analytical instruments for target
recognition. A lot of work has been done in this field, but the increase of sensitivity for specific analytes and the response time
are still challenging.
I am grateful to the staff of Current Nanoscience for the opportunity to present this Special Issue and to the authors who
contributed with their papers to the dissemination of this research theme.
Aims & Scopes of Special Issue: Currently, nanostructured anodic oxides, including anodic
aluminum oxide, anodic titanium oxide, anodic copper oxides and many others, triggers on
numerous progresses in fundamental and technological disciplines. There are many new
approaches in anodization, like pulse or sinusoidal anodization, which allow to form distributed
Braggs reflectors for optical sensing or information coding. Furthermore, recently the concept
of drug releasing platform, as intelligent therapeutic device was shown to be effective, basing
on anodic aluminum and titanium oxide. Moreover, anodization of alloys allowed to achieve via
voltage and composition of electrolyte, nanoporous mixed oxides with tunable bandgap, what
is desired in photocatalysis. Recently, also numerous achievements linked to renewable energy
harvesting have been reported. Anodic titania was found to be key material in dye sensitized
solar cells technology. Moreover, developed surface area of all the anodic oxides, makes it
useful as high wetting contact angle and hydrophobic surface.
Despite numerous applications, also fundamentals of anodization developed. Currently,
alternative hard to mild anodization allowed to form highly‐ordered anodic alumina. Moreover,
alternative multistep anodizing allowed to form not nanopores, but arrays of ordered
nanocones. Both are promising for devices employing interactions between material in
nanoscale and light.
In last few years, a significant progress in anodizing was reported. The special issue will
be devoted to the newest up‐to‐date achievements in the fundamental and applications of
nanostructured anodic oxides.
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