Gastrointestinal Interaction between Dietary Amino Acids and Gut Microbiota: With Special Emphasis on Host Nutrition

Author(s): Abedin Abdallah, Evera Elemba, Qingzhen Zhong*, Zewei Sun*

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 21 , Issue 8 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals is host to a complex community of different microorganisms whose activities significantly influence host nutrition and health through enhanced metabolic capabilities, protection against pathogens, and regulation of the gastrointestinal development and immune system. New molecular technologies and concepts have revealed distinct interactions between the gut microbiota and dietary amino acids (AAs) especially in relation to AA metabolism and utilization in resident bacteria in the digestive tract, and these interactions may play significant roles in host nutrition and health as well as the efficiency of dietary AA supplementation. After the protein is digested and AAs and peptides are absorbed in the small intestine, significant levels of endogenous and exogenous nitrogenous compounds enter the large intestine through the ileocaecal junction. Once they move in the colonic lumen, these compounds are not markedly absorbed by the large intestinal mucosa, but undergo intense proteolysis by colonic microbiota leading to the release of peptides and AAs and result in the production of numerous bacterial metabolites such as ammonia, amines, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), hydrogen sulfide, organic acids, and phenols. These metabolites influence various signaling pathways in epithelial cells, regulate the mucosal immune system in the host, and modulate gene expression of bacteria which results in the synthesis of enzymes associated with AA metabolism. This review aims to summarize the current literature relating to how the interactions between dietary amino acids and gut microbiota may promote host nutrition and health.

Keywords: Amino acid fermenting bacteria, amino acid metabolism, gut microbiota, host health, host nutrition.

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Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 09 November, 2020
Page: [785 - 798]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1389203721666200212095503
Price: $65

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PDF: 17