Background: A possible viral etiology has been documented in the genesis of motor neuron disorders and
acquired peripheral neuropathies, mainly due to the vulnerability of peripheral nerves and the anterior horn to certain
viruses. In recent years, several reports show association of HIV infection with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis –
Syndrome, Motor Neuron Diseases and peripheral neuropathies.
Objective: To report a case of an association between Motor Neuron Disease and Acquired Axonal neuropathy in HIV
infection, and describe the findings of neurological examination, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroimaging and electrophysiology.
Methods: The patient underwent neurological examination. General medical examinations were performed, including,
specific neuromuscular tests, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, muscle biopsy and imaging studies.
Results and Discussion: The initial clinical presentation of our case was marked by cramps and fasciculations with
posterior distal paresis and atrophy in the left arm. We found electromyography tracings with deficits in the anterior horn
of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Dysphagia and release of primitive reflexes were also identified. At the same
time, the patient was informed to be HIV positive with high viral load. He received antiretroviral therapy, with load
control but with no clinical remission.
Conclusion: Motor Neuron disorders and peripheral neuropathy may occur in association with HIV infection. However, a
causal relationship remains uncertain. It is noteworthy that the antiretroviral regimen may be implicated in some cases.