Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles formation in the brain tissue. It is a progressive disease with death as the final outcome. In 2012 there were 35.6 million affected people worldwide and this number is constantly increasing. The main risk factor is age and life expectancy after the diagnosis is approximately ten years. The most important diagnostic procedures are neurocognitive tests, which are used to assess behavior and thinking abilities, while neuroimaging is used to exclude other brain pathologies and confirm the specific atrophic changes. Although a large number of studies have investigated this issue, no effective treatment for AD has been found. Most frequently used medications are ACh esterase inhibitors, mainly donepezil, rivastigmin and galantamine, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, memantine, but they are mostly used to relieve the symptoms. Therefore, the emphasis should be put on early disease detection and delaying cognitive impairment through lifestyle modifications, such as increased physical activity, healthy nutrition, and mental training. The disease influences not only the patients’ quality of life, but also that of the caregivers, and represents a heavy financial burden for the society as a whole.