Nutritional Biochemistry: From the Classroom to the Research Bench

Proteins, Amino Acids, and Nitrogen Metabolism

Author(s): Sami Dridi

Pp: 182-207 (26)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815051575122010010

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Animals require proteins, which are large nutrients made up of amino acids,
in their diets. The body can make some amino acids, but others (essential amino acids)
need to be provided by the diet. The ingested proteins go through digestion via various
digestive enzymes to produce amino acids and peptides that are absorbed and
transported via specific transporters. The whole body protein pool is determined by the
balance between the processes of protein synthesis and degradation, which are under
the control of hormonal, nutritional, and neuronal factors. Protein and amino acids play
crucial roles in cellular and body weight homeostasis from regulation of appetite and
food intake, metabolic reactions to cellular signaling within and between cells as well
as energy production for survival. This chapter aims to discuss protein and amino acid
metabolisms and provide a summary of current progress in the field.

Keywords: Amino acids, Absorption, Autophagy, Digestion, Protein synthesis, Protein degradation, Proteins, Ubiqitine-proteasome.

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