Background: Prelabor rupture of membrane (PROM) refers to the breakage of fetal membranes before the onset of labor, resulting in the leakage of amniotic fluid. PROM affects approximately 3% and 8% of preterm and term pregnancies, respectively. Because of associated high maternal and perinatal mortality, correct and timely diagnosis together with effective management is highly recommended to prevent adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.
Objective: To provide an overview of the novel concepts in the understanding of PROM including etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, complications, assessment, diagnostic modalities, and contemporary management strategies for PROM at preterm and term.
Methods: This narrative literature review was conducted through a literature search using the Cochrane library and electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Crossref, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect with specific search terms in scientific publications published from March 1980 to March 2020.
Results: Preterm PROM has the potential to cause prenatal morbidity and mortality. It is imperative to monitor the signs and symptoms of an impending infection due to the risk of infectious morbidity with PROM at preterm and preterm. PROM at preterm and term requires prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate management strategy.
Conclusion: The correct and timely diagnosis of PROM is essential for efficacious management. Furthermore, it can reduce avoidable emergent health care visits and related costs in a clinical setting subjected to pregnancy with suspected PROM. Further studies are needed to fill the gaps in identifying better diagnostic predictive tools in high- risk pregnancies.