Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with inflammatory processes and elevated plasma cytokines. Inflammatory processes associated with OSAS may also act as potential mediators of cardiovascular morbidity in these patients. OSAS is associated with elevated levels of C reactive protein (CRP), as a marker of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. At the inflammatory point of view, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, hsCRP, adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and resistin were markedly and significantly elevated in patients with sleep apnea than those in normal control subjects. We reviewed several recent patents and literature in English about OSAS and upper airway inflammation relation since 1966 from the Medline database.