4D Fetal Echocardiography

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical ...
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Conotruncal Anomalies

Pp. 135-146 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/978160805044411001010135

Author(s): Dario Paladini, Gabriella Sglavo


In the chapter, the 2D, color Doppler and 4D features of major conotruncal abnormalities will be described. In particular, the echocardiographic views on which the various lesions are detected will be described. In addition, the role of color Doppler in the recognition of valve stenosis or insufficiency will be illustrated. Finally, the diagnostic role of 4D echocardiography will be described, only in those cases in which it has additional clinical value. Videos of major diagnostic features are also provided, to facilitate the understanding of the text.


4D Ultrasound, Fetal Echocardiography, Conotruncal Anomalies.