Background: This study discusses the crucial factors responsible for the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The interaction between the gut microbiota, heart and vessels in CVD pathogenesis is extremely complex and includes components such as direct bacterial translocation from the gut to vessels and metabolitemediated damage. To a greater extent, CVD seems to be entangled with a subtle immune system-to-microbiota interface. From among the most significant advances in recent years in this area, it is necessary to highlight the discovery of the pro-atherogenic effect of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and changes in the activity of effector T-cells in the settings of dysbiosis.
Currently, we are witnessing an explosive growth in interest in using the microbiota and interlinked cascades as a target for therapeutic interventions, including direct microbiome targeting, the attenuation of toxic metabolite-induced damage, the modulation of intestinal immunity, and downstream inhibition of systemic inflammatory pathways.
Objective: In this brief review, modern strategies of microbiome-based therapies for the prevention and treatment of CVD are classified and discussed from the perspective of personalized medicine.