Tuberculosis Infections of the Central Nervous System
The causative agent of Tuberculosis meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the bacteria that causes pulmonary tuberculosis. Proliferating into the central nervous system occurs from other sites of infection within the body. Brain damage can result from the infection that may lead to abnormal behavior, mental impairments, motor type paralysis, and seizures. Tuberculosis infections of the central nervous system are a serious and often fatal disease predominantly impacting young children, and is thought to be the most devastating form of the disease. Isoniazid is the only first line bactericidal agent that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and achieves concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid similar to those in serum. Rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin all penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid poorly, and even in the setting of meningeal inflammation. As much as one-third of the current world's population may be infected with tuberculosis. Tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is a serious type of extrapulmonary proliferation of this disease . In developing countries, it has high predominance in children. Pathological manifestations of cerebral tuberculosis occur, of which the most common is tuberculous meningitis, followed by tuberculoma, tuberculous abscess, cerebral miliary tuberculosis, tuberculous encephalopathy, tuberculous encephalitis, and tuberculous arteritis. Brain abscesses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can induce seizures and coma leading to death and complicated due to multiorgan failure. Rapid diagnosis and early intervention is vital for successful outcome for patients. Further studies are required to understand the proliferation of tuberculosis meningitis in addition to the elucidation of new therapeutic drugs for the successful clinical treatment of this deadly disease.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, meningitis, mycobacterium, Central nervous system (CNS), spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis, CNS disease, neurologically disability, meningeal inflammation, cerebrospinal fluid
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