Background: Dietary high fat possibly causes oxidative stress. Also, it alters the pathophysiology
of metabolically active myocardial tissues and vascular architecture. Emblica officinalis
contains a potential antioxidant that counteracts oxidative stress and possibly maintains vascular integrity.
Objectives: To assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) on High Fat Diet
(HFD) induced changes in vascular chemistry and histopathology of the cardiovascular system in
male albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) was prepared and phytochemical
analysis was done. Rats were divided into four groups, having six rats in each group as follows:
group 1- Control (20% fat); group 2 (20% fat+ EEO 100 mg/kg/b w); group 3 (30% fat) and
group 4 (30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg/b w). Dietary and EEO supplementation was continued for 21
days. Gravimetric and oxidative stress markers like MDA, NO, antioxidants like Vitamin C and E,
and molecular marker (NOS3) were evaluated. Histopathological analysis was done on the myocardium
and elastic artery along with measurement of coronary arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter.
One way ANOVA was done for analysis of data.
Results: High fat diet showed a significant increase in MDA, decrease of NO with unaltered NOS3
protein in rats fed with high fat diet, which indicate possible alteration of vascular pathophysiology.
Supplementation of EEO showed an ameliorating effect on high fat diet induced oxidative stress.
These results were further corroborated with findings of a histopathological study on the myocardium,
elastic artery and coronary arterial architecture.
Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) indicates its cardioprotective efficacy
against rats fed with high fat diet.