Synergistic Effect of Epigenetic Inhibitors Decitabine and Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid on Colorectal Cancer In vitro

Author(s): Sonia Abou Najem , Ghada Khawaja , Mohammad Hassan Hodroj , Sandra Rizk* .

Journal Name: Current Molecular Pharmacology

Volume 12 , Issue 4 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is a common cause of oncological deaths worldwide. Alterations of the epigenetic landscape constitute a well-documented hallmark of CRC phenotype. The accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation and histone acetylation plays a major role in altering gene activity and driving tumor onset, progression and metastasis.

Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), a panhistone deacetylase inhibitor, and Decitabine (DAC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, either alone or in combination, on Caco-2 human colon cancer cell line in vitro.

Results: Our results showed that SAHA and DAC, separately, significantly decreased cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of Caco-2 cell line. On the other hand, the sequential treatment of Caco-2 cells, first with DAC and then with SAHA, induced a synergistic anti-tumor effect with a significant enhancement of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in Caco-2 cell line as compared to cells treated with either drug alone. Furthermore, the combination therapy upregulates protein expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, p53 and cytochrome c, downregulates the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and increases the cleavage of procaspases 8 and 9; this suggests that the combination activates apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the synergistic anti-neoplastic activity of combined SAHA and DAC involves an effect on PI3K/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our results provide evidence for the profound anti-tumorigenic effect of sequentially combined SAHA and DAC in the CRC cell line and offer new insights into the corresponding underlined molecular mechanism.

Keywords: Apoptosis, epigenetics, colon cancer, decitabine, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, in vitro.

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Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [281 - 300]
Pages: 20
DOI: 10.2174/1874467212666190313154531
Price: $58

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