The environmental impact as well as malnutrition are responsible for an increased incidence of inflammatory diseases with a consequential loss of immune homeostasis. Therefore, administration of nutraceuticals is aimed at reconstituting the immune balance in terms of the so-called immune nutrition. Among many known nutraceuticals, more recently, donkeys and goats milks have been used as good alternatives to human and bovine milk in various clinical conditions such as allergy, atopy and inflammatory diseases. In fact, both milks possess immunomodulating capacities and release nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator endowed with anti-atherogenic properties. In this review, emphasis will be placed on the consumption of fermented milk and, in particular, on its ability to modulate the aged immune system, even including the intestinal mucosal immune response in elderly. Therefore, for their specific properties donkeys and goats milk administration to aged people should be encouraged.
Keywords: Donkey, goat, immune response, milk, nitric oxide, probiotics
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