Sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from mesenchymal tissue and account for approximately 1% of all adult solid malignancies diagnosed, although its incidence approaches 20% in pediatric cancers. Characterization of molecular abnormalities in patients with sarcomas, in particular the up-regulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, loss or deletions of retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 gene, increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis through Bcl-2 overexpression, along with oncogene mutations and activations, such as c-KIT in Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), makes treatment with novel biological therapies a promising option. This review focuses on the molecular heterogeneity of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, novel biological therapies currently in clinical trials to target the various molecular pathways, and the potential biological agents in preclinical and early clinical development.
Keywords: Sarcoma, AKT, mTOR, IGF-1R, Ras, Apoptosis, VEGF and targeted therapy
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