Kidneys and cardiovascular system are closely related among them, but in general, the search for new alternatives for treatment and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases does not take into account this relationship. In this context, nanotechnology offers multiple pharmacological strategies for overcoming many of the most important restrictions of traditional cardiovascular therapies, such as their unspecific pharmacodynamics distribution. In this sense, drug or contrast agent nano-targeting for treatment or diagnosis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, renal cancer or fibrosis, glomerulonephritis, among other renal, cardiac and blood vessels pathologies would allow a considerable increase in their efficiency and a reduction of their side effects.
Therefore, this review aimed to resume the most relevant and updated active, passive, and physical targeting strategies of several nanocarriers that have been assessed and proposed for the treatment and diagnosis of different cardiovascular diseases. To perform an integrative complete and enriching analysis of this topic, we took into account both renal and cardiovascular contribution.