Background: Advances in material science and particle engineering have led to the development of a
rapidly growing number of nanoparticulate carriers for drug and gene delivery. These carriers are increasingly
being investigated in dermal and transdermal routes of drug administration.
Objective: To critically examine and summarize the primary factors and mechanisms involved in nanocarriermediated
dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs.
Method: Thorough literature search was undertaken, spanning the early development of nanocarrier-mediated
dermal and transdermal drug delivery approaches, to the current state of the art, using online search tools.
Results: Physicochemical, formulation, experimental and morphological factors, such as, material of construction
or type of nanoparticle (NP), surface chemistry, particle size, particle shape, surface charge, dispersion medium,
duration of exposure of skin to NPs, combination of NPs with physical agents, and aspects related to skin were
identified and discussed.
Conclusion: The key factors and mechanisms which influence NPs-skin interactions in dermal and transdermal
drug delivery are discussed in this article in-line with the current advances in the field.