Studying the Gut Microbiome of Latin America and Hispanic/Latino Populations. Insight into Obesity and Diabetes: Systematic Review

Author(s): Romero-Ibarguengoitia Maria Elena*, Garcia-Dolagaray Gabriela, Gonzalez-Cantu Arnulfo, Caballero Augusto Enrique.

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: People from Latin America (LA) and the Hispanic/Latino community living in the United States (LUS) exhibit a high prevalence of diabetes (DM) and obesity (OB). The Gut Microbiome (GM) is capable of altering energy regulation and glucose metabolism, but for the expression of these diseases a combination of multiple factors such as ethnicity, genetic and nutritional factors are required. A systematic research was conducted to understand if the prevalence of OB and/or DM has an interaction with the GM in LA and LUS.

Methods: Research was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Embase and Google Scholar for articles between 1990 and 2017. It was restricted to human studies published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese that applied genetic techniques to study the GM in LA or LUS and discussed the association with OB and/or DM.

Results: Different gut Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes relationships in several populations from LA influenced by geography, diet and lifestyles interacted with OB. Healthy people from the Mexico and US border had the same imbalance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes found in OB or Type 2 DM. High levels of Bacteroides and a reduced proportion of Prevotella, Megamonas, and Acidaminococcus were found in newly diagnosed type 1 DM. Once the patient was treated with insulin, an increase of Prevotella levels was seen. Inverse Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes relationship was reported before the development of Type 1 DM.

Conclusion: An important relation between GM and OB and/or DM exists in LA and LUS. Further elucidation of pathophysiologic mechanisms is required.

Keywords: Gut microbiome, diabetes, obesity, latinos, latin america, systematic review.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2019
Page: [294 - 301]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1573399814666180730124817
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