Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality with a substantial economic
impact. The annual deaths are expected to increase in the next decade. An array of dietary supplements is being
used by people worldwide to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), a top-selling
herbal dietary supplement, is renowned for its wide range beneficial effects, particularly in the treatment and
prevention of CVD. This review aims to present a thorough discussion of the available evidence-based data which
support the use of garlic in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension,
and hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are dissected as well. This
review supports the notion that garlic has the potential to treat mild hypertension, to decrease hypercholesterolemia,
and to prevent atherosclerosis. More clinical studies are essential to unequivocally understand the
mechanisms underlying treatment or prevention of these cardiovascular conditions.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis, hyperlipidemia, garlic, Allium sativum, herbal medicine.
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