Thyroid hormones have relevant activity at cardiac and vascular level, by influencing heart rate, myocardial
excitability as well as inotropic and lusitropic status, systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure. Moreover, they
interact with neuro-hormonal systems such as sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system thus
also indirectly influencing cardiovascular function. Due to these effects, both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, either
in their overt or subclinical forms, can have an unfavourable impact in the setting of cardiovascular diseases.
The aim of this review is to focus on the prognostic consequences of thyroid disorders in heart failure patients. Moreover,
the therapeutical approach and the possible beneficial effects of restoring euthyroidism are reviewed.