Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used for acute and chronic pain control and
treatment of inflammation, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. NSAIDs have been shown to inhibit bone healing in
animal studies due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. However, little evidence exists regarding the effect of
NSAID exposure on human bone metabolism. This systematic review summarizes the current literature of randomized
controlled trials (RCTs) investigating NSAIDs with bone remodeling-related outcomes in humans. After performing computerized
searches in the most widely indexed databases, study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment were
conducted in duplicate. The results were controversial regarding the association of NSAID with bone formation or resorption.
Increased bone mineral density following NSAID exposure was reported by some studies. Based on the levels of
biochemical markers, no effect was seen on bone formation, while some evidence was found for a decreased rate of bone
resorption in NSAID patients. Trials investigating the effects of NSAID treatment on bone metabolism outcomes of human
patients are limited. Further research is required to confirm or refute the findings of this systematic review.
Keywords: Bone metabolism, bone remodeling, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, randomized controlled trial, chronic, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, prostaglandin synthesis, biochemical, Bone homeostasis
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