Page: 1-24 (24)
Author: Ruchi Chawla*, Varsha Rani, Krishan Kumar and Mohini Mishra
PDF Price: $15
The process of repurposing drugs is an alternative to the conventional drug
discovery process. It is a cost-effective and time-efficient process with high returns and
low risk that utilizes mechanistic information of the existing drugs to investigate their
novel applications against other disease conditions. The most significant benefit of
drug repositioning is that it brings new life against novel/ orphan/ resistant diseases and
pandemic outbreaks like COVID-19. As a result, widespread use of the drug
repurposing strategy will not only aid in the more efficient fight against pandemics but
will also combat life-threatening diseases. Therefore, repurposing drugs can provide a
quick response to these unpredictable situations. In this chapter, we have tried to focus
on various drug-repurposing strategies along with therapeutics for repurposing drugs
against life-threatening diseases wherein little or no treatment is readily available.
Exploration of Repurposed and Adjuvant Drugs in COVID-19 Patients, as well as Challenges and Ethical Issues Related to Drug Repurposing
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Author: Malti Dadheech and Anand Kumar Maurya*
PDF Price: $15
The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), also referred to as Novel
Coronavirus Disease, is a contagious viral disease with a high rate of confirmed cases.
Therefore, treatment options are urgently needed to fight the deadly virus. Since there
is no standard treatment available, it results in increased morbidity and mortality. The
development process of a new drug takes years, so it is crucial to focus on repurposed
drugs to reduce the severity of this disease. This review aims to describe the regulatory
and molecular aspects of repurposed and adjuvant drugs for COVID-19 based on
registered clinical trials and online literature. The use of repurposed drugs brings its
own ethical issues and challenges. The challenges of the correct interpretation of
existing pre-clinical/clinical evidence and the generation of new evidence concerning
drug repurposing in COVID-19 and the issues faced by the repurposing community
will also be discussed in the review. When drug repurposing is employed in emergency
situations, regional limitations of clinical research ethics, involuntary risk burden,
regulatory aspects and ethical issues, fairness in resource distribution for repurposed
drugs become an issue that requires careful ethical consideration.
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Author: Kavita Verma, Yoganchal Mishra, Sarika Singh, Neha Kapoor and Neelam Yadav*
PDF Price: $15
COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV -2), has emerged as a global health problem. It was first reported in Wuhan city of China, in December 2019. Unfortunately, no specific and effective drug is available to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients. There is an urgent need to control COVID-19pandemic. Research & development of novel molecules is a timeconsuming and labour-intensive procedure in the midst of a pandemic. The aim of drug repurposing is to find a therapeutically effective molecule from a library of pre-existing compounds. In the present article, a large number of anti-viral drugs with their potential efficacy in inhibiting replication of virus by targeting the virus S protein (Spike protein), 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and papain-like protease (PLpro), which play an important role in the replication cycle and pathogenesis of coronaviruses, were assessed as possible treatment options against SARS-CoV-2 infected COVID-19 patients. The continuing SARS-CoV-2 epidemic emphasises the importance of efficient anti-viral medications that can be administered swiftly to decrease morbidity, death, and viral transmission. Several breakthroughs in the development of COVID-19 treatment options might be made by repurposing widely active anti-viral medicines and chemicals that are known to suppress viral replication of related viruses.
Page: 72-99 (28)
Author: Manisha Mulchandani, Amit Kumar Palai, Anjali Bhosale, Farhan Mazahir and Awesh K. Yadav*
PDF Price: $15
SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the family coronviradae and the disease caused by
this virus is known as COVID-19. Viral entry into the cell is favored by spike
glycoprotein, which interacts with Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE-2).
Moreover, proteins such as Transmembrane Protease Serine-2 (TMPRSS-2), are
responsible for viral fusion with cellular epithelium. Traditional drug discovery
methods and their development process are time-consuming as well as expensive.
Thus, there is a need for a method that can overcome such drawbacks. Drug
repurposing is an approach in which we can use an existing drug that is already being
used for another disease. The repurposing of drugs is also known as repositioning. It is
the process that identifies new therapeutic use for existing or available drugs.
Hydroxychloroquine inhibits ACE-2 glycosylation virus entry to the host body; arbidol
prevents fusion of viral lipid shell with cell membrane hence restricting contact and
penetration of virus. Drug repurposing could be a successful strategy for the treatment
of sporadic, neglected diseases, difficult-to-treat diseases, and the current pandemic
situation, i.e., COVID-19. However, there is no denying the fact that there are several
limitations to this approach.
Repurposed Drugs/Potential Pharmacological Agents Targeting Cytokine Release and Induction of Coagulation in COVID-19
Page: 100-136 (37)
Author: Arpita Singh*, Ajay Kumar Verma, Anuj Kumar Pandey and Jyoti Bajpai
PDF Price: $15
Global public health has been challenged by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID- 19) and has been a threat to clinical management to fight this viral infection. Due to the lack of specific therapies, there is a race among the scientific fraternity to find its specific cure to date. COVID-19 symptoms range from mild fatigue to potentially fatal pneumonia, cytokine storm (CS), and multi-organ failure. Hence, investigating the repurposing of current medications for use in the management of COVID-19 patients is a realistic approach. It is prudent to investigate using repurposed medications in the management of COVID-19 patients. In the meantime, researchers are testing a number of antiviral and immunomodulatory medicines to combat the infection. Although antiviral as well as supportive medications are undoubtedly vital in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, anti-inflammatory agents play an essential part in COVID-19 patient care due to their potential to prevent additional injury and organ damage and/or failure. Moreover, COVID-19-mediated infection can be linked with coagulopathy. The most common thrombotic events in COVID-19 are venous thromboembolic (VTE), which are linked with increased severity of disease and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we evaluated medicines that potentially modulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and assist in COVID-19 management. We emphasized various pro-inflammatory cytokines as targets of repurposed drugs and targeted induction coagulation in COVID- 19 patients using the available literature and studies.
Page: 137-160 (24)
Author: Tejal Shreeya and Tabish Qidwai*
PDF Price: $15
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) in late 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic whereby infection may result in a lethal severe pneumonia-like disease designated as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, the repositioning of known drugs can significantly accelerate the development and deployment of therapies for COVID-19.
High throughput screening (HTS) is the use of automated equipment to rapidly test thousands to millions of samples for biological activity at the model organism, cellular, pathway, or molecular level. In its most common form, HTS is an experimental process in which 103–106 small molecule compounds of known structure are screened in parallel. Currently, this technique is being used to screen known compounds in several diseases, including COVID-19. In the current scenario, it is important to focus on the application of high-throughput screening (HTS) in the drug discovery process.
In this chapter, we have covered methods of the high-throughput screen and its use in screening known drugs against infectious diseases like COVID-19. Moreover, the challenges and future of these technologies have been focussed.
Page: 161-185 (25)
Author: Om Prakash and Feroz Khan*
PDF Price: $15
In this chapter, we use computational methods to illustrate drug repurposing
with the example of COVID-19. Here, the current status of drug discovery has been
described with various aspects of drug repurposing interactions, use of algorithms in
drug repurposing, re-evaluation of existing drugs, challenges in drug repurposing, and
biological and computational interpretation of personalised and AI-guided repurposing.
In addition, we present blueprints for pacing up the drug repurposing process using
artificial intelligence. This chapter is devoted to the use of computational intelligence
for drug repurposing against various diseases, including COVID-19.
Drug repurposing is a cost-effective method of discovering new treatments for diseases than traditional drug development methods. It involves virtual screening of chemical candidates with the aid of computational methods like molecular docking. Drug Repurposing against SARS-CoV2 focuses on current trends in drug repurposing against the novel coronavirus strains. The book aims to give readers an overview of drug repurposing against COVID-19 and various techniques involved in the process. The book consolidates available information on the pathophysiology, drug targets, and drug repurposing against COVID-19 into a single, convenient resource. Key features -An up-to-date compilation of the evidence that supports the drug repurposing for COVID-19. -How to use repurposing of available drugs for disease therapy. -Provides an improved understanding of pathophysiology and SARS-CoV2 viral entry pathways. - Provides references for further reading