COVID-19: Effects in Comorbidities and Special Populations

COVID-19 in Children and Newborn

Author(s): Roshan Daniel and Shiv Sajan Saini * .

Pp: 305-342 (38)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815036367122010013

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


COVID 19 has already affected more than 191 million people worldwide and has claimed more than 4 million lives to date (22nd July 2021). Yet, we still do not completely understand this disease. Data on children are even more sparse, making it difficult to lay down a comprehensive guideline for the same. 

However, thanks to a handful of studies, we now understand that children are less affected, are less infectious, have lesser mortality and risk of complications. Children with underlying chronic diseases and infants under 1 year are especially at risk and are advised selective shielding. Diagnosis is done by RT-PCR or serology, just like in adults. Most affected children are asymptomatic, and even the symptomatic children have a good outcome and usually need supportive management and monitoring only. Up to 7% of children were found to require PICU support, and mortality was less than 2%. Most deaths were attributed to underlying conditions and immunological complications, especially MIS-C. Treatment is predominantly supportive, with little consensus on specific treatments, including corticosteroids, remdesivir, and IVIg. Management is best individualized by a multidisciplinary team involving pediatricians, hematologists, immunologists, and intensivists. Prevention of COVID 19 can be achieved by proper hygiene, face masks, and social distancing. The upcoming vaccines are expected to bring down the cases and hopefully bring this pandemic to a halt.

Keywords: COVID 19, Children, Corona virus, Newborns, MIS-C, PIMS, Remdesivir, RCPCH, Treatment, Recovery trial, Vaccine.

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