Applications of Nanomaterials in Energy Storage and Electronics

Advanced Batteries and Charge Storage Devices based on Nanowires

Author(s): Sunil Kumar, Ravi Prakash and Pralay Maiti * .

Pp: 159-175 (17)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815050714122030012

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Compositional designed electrodes exhibiting high specific capacities are of great interest towards align="center"high performance charge storage devices. Electrode surface can store charge or guest ions due to structural confinement effect. Ion storage capacity depends on the structural integrity of electrode (anode) materials of batteries. Electrolyte selection also decides the storage capacity of batteries and other charge storage devices. Volume expansion or variation can be minimized through structural variation of the electrode. align="center"The charging phenomenon proceeds through the continuous ion destruction process of adsorbed ions into semipermeable align="center"pores. Dimension controlled electrode materials possess superior ion storage capacity. The contemporary design is an effective way to improve the charge storage capacity of electrodes. Low dimension materials exhibit better charge storage capacity due to high surface density (surface to volume ratio) and efficient charge confinement. The confined dimensions (quantum confinement) play important roles in orienting the desired kinetic properties of nanomaterials, such as charge transport and diffusion. This chapter emphasizes critical overviews of the state-of-the-art nanowiresbased align="center"electrodes for energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion capacitors, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. Ions or charges can be percolated easily through nanowire networks due to fast adsorption and diffusion. High-rate capability is intensified align="center"over large electroactive surface in align="center"an ordered nanowire electrode. 


Keywords: Active electrodes, Batteries, Capacitors, Charge storage capacity, Capacity retention, Composite storage surface, Energy density, Electrolyte wettability, Electrode strain accommodation, Functionalized phase, Ion adsorption, Interfacial ion exchange, align="center"Metal-organic framework, Nanowire, Nanowire array, Nanowire nucleation sites, Redox active sites, Redox reaction, Surface penetration.

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