Bioremediation: Challenges and Advancements

Bioremediation of Hydrocarbons and Xenobiotic Compound

Author(s): Suman Singh, Sucheta Singh and Ramesh Kumar Kushwaha * .

Pp: 1-48 (48)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815036039122010004

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


In the last few decades, the increase in population, the industrial revolution,
and modernization have produced numerous problems in the form of hazardous
pollutants in the ecosystem rapidly. These hazardous pollutants such as polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, manmade pesticides (xenobiotics),
radioactive materials, toxic chemicals, and dyes created an imbalance in the ecosystem
and increased risks to human, plants, and animal’s health. Furthermore, the use of
chemical fertilisers, pesticides, and sewage releases toxicants into the soil and potable
water, where they enter the food chain and endanger food security. Many strategies and
practices have been used to prevent harmful effects of these pollutants up to a certain
extent. Various physical and chemical methods have been implemented to remove
these contaminants, but due to some limitations, it has not been applied successfully.
Despite this, appropriate biological methods are currently applied to decrease
pollutants’ concentrations from the soil, water, and the environment. The use of
biological methods for bioremediation should be cost-effective, eco-friendly, and
biodegradable, decreasing the danger to the ecosystem and living beings. Microbeassisted
remediation technology has been developed to degrade xenobiotic compounds
through various biosynthetic mechanisms. The objective of this chapter is to discuss
different methods of bioremediation, their process, and mechanisms, employing
potential plants and microbes in the remediation of pollutants from the environment. In
addition, the present chapter highlighted the significance of recent biotechnological
methods in improving the capability of microbial remediation methods. These methods
successfully degrade pollutants, emphasizing current advances in microbe-assisted
remediation along with phytoremediation as well as related challenges, future outlooks,
and limitations.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Chemical Fertilizers, Ecosystem, Heavy Metals, Microbial Remediation, Pesticides.

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