Introduction: Charcot arthropathy is one of the disabling diabetes complications. There are enigmatic areas concerning its underlying pathophysiology and risk predictors. Osteoporosis and local osteopenia have been postulated to have a role in Charcot arthropathy development, but it is still controversial.
Background: The study aims to compare bone mineral density among type 2 diabetics with and without Charcot arthropathy.
Methods: Two groups with type 2 diabetes participated in this study; Group I  patients with Charcot arthropathy while Group II  patients without charcot arthropathy. All patients underwent full clinical examination and complete history taking with special emphasis on foot problems. Laboratory investigations were done that included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. All patients underwent MRI for both feet and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the lumbar spine and femur. The demographic data, clinical data, the presence or absence of comorbidities and bone mineral density were compared for both groups.
Result: Bone mineral density was significantly lower in Group I than Group II with median lumber T score (-0.15, 1.99 p <0.001), median Femur T score (0.050, 2.400, p <0.001). Group I showed higher propensity for hypertension, neuropathy, micro-albuminuria with peripheral arterial disease (23.33 %) compared to Group II (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender and low femur bone mineral density can be risk predictors of the condition.
Conclusion: Bone mineral density is lower in patients with Charcot arthropathy with female gender and Femur T score as risk predictors. Peripheral arterial disease shows greater incidence in Charcot patients than was previously reported.