Background: We hypothesized that the inflammatory markers (IM) could be the independent predictors of Carotid Stenosis Progression (CSP) after Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS).
Methods: Between 2010 and 2012, 122 patients undergoing cervicocranial revascularization in our hospital were prospectively recruited. Patients undergoing revascularizations other than CAS were excluded. Carotid duplex ultrasonography was performed before and at 1 week, 6 months (6M), 1 year, and 2 years after CAS. IM levels were recorded before CAS and were followed up immediately and 6M after CAS. The data was analyzed retrospectively. Patients were categorized into the Progression Group (PG) and Nonprogression Group (NPG) based on the presence or absence of CSP, including in-stent restenosis (ISR) and worsening contralateral carotid stenosis. Receiver operating characteristic and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted.
Results: In Total, 77 patients were enrolled. The frequency of CSP was 24.7% (ISR: 14.3%; worsening contralateral carotid stenosis: 14.3%). Compared with the NPG, the PG had lower E-selectin levels before CAS [PG vs. NPG, 47.90 (42.80, 64.90) vs. 68.25 (52.08, 92.30); p = .01] and a nonreduced E-selectin levels at 6M after CAS [PG vs. NPG, 7.65 (-2.45, 25.75) vs. -16.10 (-33.45, 1.65); p = .002]. The E-selectin changes between 6M after and before CAS had highest predictive accuracy on CSP (area under the curve = 0.74, p = .002). The optimal cut-off level was a 2.95 ng/mL decrease and the adjusted odds ratio for CSP was 10.16 (p = .001).
Conclusion: The E-selectin changes between 6M after and before CAS are independent predictors of CSP.