Background: Medical application of nanotechnology is termed as Nanomedicine and is widely used in healthcare industries. Nanotechnology has helped Physicians, Scientists and Technologists to understand the changes in cellular levels to develop nanomedicines and address the challenges faced by the healthcare sectors. Nanoparticles with less than 1nm in size have been used as drug delivery and gene delivery systems to accelerate the drug action in humans. Size of nanomaterials is akin to that of biomolecules and expected to have better interactions. Hence, its utility for various biomedical applications is explored.
Objective: Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, permeability, distribution and elimination studies of nanoparticles are essential to understand its potency, toxicity threshold and confirm its safe use in humans. Reports were available for toxicity studies on nanoparticles, but work on metabolism, pharmacokinetics, distribution and permeability of nanomedicine is limited. Hence, the main focus of this review article is about metabolism, pharmacokinetics, permeability and biodistribution of nanomaterials used in nanomedicine.
Conclusion: Nanomedicine is increasingly becoming important in the treatment of diseases and diagnosis. Size of the particle plays an important role. As the particle size decreases its effect to cure the disease increases. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, half-life, metabolism, biodistribution and permeability of nanomedicine were found to be better than that of microsized drugs. In vitro and In vivo ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) studies are mandatory for pharmaceutical organic drugs. Similarly, nanomaterials should be subjected to both in vitro and in vivo ADME studies. Thus, nanomedicine can assist in the development of safe personalized medicine in humans.