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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Statins and Oxidative Stress in the Cardiovascular System

Author(s): Marios Margaritis, Fabio Sanna and Charalambos Antoniades*

Volume 23 , Issue 46 , 2017

Page: [7040 - 7047] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170926130338

Price: $65

Abstract

Statins are widely established as an important class of medications for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to their lipid-lowering effects, mounting evidence suggests that statins exhibit non-lipid-lowering mediated effects in the cardiovascular system. These so called “pleiotropic” effects are partly due to antioxidant properties of statins. These are mediated by inhibition of the mevalonate pathway, which interferes with small GTP-ase protein prenylation. This, in turn, leads to anti-oxidant effects of statins via a plethora of mechanisms. Statins prevent the activation of the pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH-oxidase by interfering with Rac1 activation and translocation to the membrane, as well as reducing expression of crucial subunits of NADPH-oxidase. Statins also enhance the expression, enzymatic activity and coupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), through mevalonate-dependent effects. The net result is a restoration of the redox balance in the cardiovascular system, with subsequent anti-atherosclerotic and cardioprotective effects. While the evidence from basic science studies and animal models is strong, more clinical trials are required to establish the relevance of these pleiotropic effects to human cardiovascular disease and potentially lead to expanded indications for statin treatment or alternative therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: statins, pleiotropic effects, oxidative stress, NADPH-oxidases, eNOS, cardiovascular disease.


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