Common cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) abnormalities are a common neuroradiological finding, especially in the elderly. They are associated with a wide clinical spectrum that leads to an increasing disability, impaired global function outcome and a reduced quality of life. A strong association is demonstrated with age and hypertension and other common vascular risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinemia, smoking, low vitamin B12 level, and hyperomocysteinemia. Although these epidemiological associations suggest a systemic involvement, etiopathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on the potential role of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenic cascade leading to cSVD. We stressed on the central role of those pathways, and suggest the importance of quantifying the cerebral (and non-only) “endotheliopathic and oxidative load” and its clinical presentation that could lead to a better determination of vascular risk degree. In addition, understanding underlying pathogenic mechanisms could allow us to slow down the progression of vascular damage and, therefore, prevent the disability due to reiterated microvascular damage.