Recent improvements in therapy of children with cancer have resulted in an increase in cure rates which lead to long-term survivorship. Assessment of short- and long-term complications and late effects of cancer therapies is accomplished by pediatric oncologists and multi-disciplinary team, including continuation of care from pediatric to adult primary care. The late complications of cancer treatment include growth and development, reproduction, vital organ function (cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal), dental, ocular, esthetic sequellae, and second neoplasms (benign or malignant), which are cited as the second most frequent cause of death in the Children Cancer Survivors Study cohort.Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood cancers has been established by international specialists, the main aim is to decrease severe late complications by individualizing prevention care and treatment. Preventive measures include reduction of radiotherapy doses, or omission, introduction of new radiotherapy techniques, decrease doses of alkylating drugs, and anthracyclines, cardio protectors, fertility preservations guidelines, new surgical techniques, introduction of biological treatments. The multidisciplinary team monitors certain treatments including risk-based care not only of the tumor, but also premorbid conditions, and health behaviors. More comprehensive and high-quality evaluations of survivorship programs are needed, for long term outcome, quality of life and psychosocial support.