Background: Smoking is the world’s leading cause of preventable death among populations. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of numerous health problems, including heart diseases, stroke, atherosclerosis and many types of cancer, including lung, stomach and bladder cancers.
Outcomes: Many individuals find it difficult to stop smoking because of the addictive effects of nicotine and the presence of several monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in the tobacco smoke extract.
Objective: The development of novel, safe and effective medications for smoking cessation is a high public health priority.
Results: The role of mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways in withdrawal symptoms and general reinforcement processes clearly recommends dopaminergic system as a potential target for the treatment of nicotine addiction.
Conclusion: This review article discusses the new pharmacological treatments of nicotine dependence, which are targeting dopaminergic neurotransmission. This includes blockade of dopamine transporter and inhibition of MAO as pharmacotherapy for the treatment of nicotine dependence.