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Current Tissue Engineering (Discontinued)

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2211-5420
ISSN (Online): 2211-5439

Mechanical Injury of Knee Articular Cartilage in Sports-Related Exercise and Potential Post-Injury Preventative Therapy

Author(s): Jose Perez, Lee Kaplan and Chun-Yuh C. Huang

Volume 4 , Issue 2 , 2015

Page: [67 - 76] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2211542004666150713185957

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Chronic overuse or acute injury to the knee has been determined to be a major cause of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Studies have indicated an increased incidence of osteoarthritis in athletes, with or without a history of significant knee injury.

Method: This review examines the relationship between physical activity and the onset of articular cartilage damage, which may progress to OA. The contact forces and stresses sustained by the knee joint during dynamic movement in sports is summarized, followed by exploring the potential correlation between these contact loads and impact injury of articular cartilage. Finally, potential modalities to prevent the progression of OA of mechanically injured cartilage are discussed. The articles regarding OA, contact forces and stresses in dynamic movements, and prevention modalities of OA were identified in PubMed databases.

Results: Increases in physical demand on the body can have adverse effects on knee joint health, especially during high contact stresses in sports. This was shown by various studies recording changes in knee joint biomarkers, cartilage deformation rates, and cartilage volume after exposing knee joints to a variety of stresses including long distance running or short-term high impact exercises. The data of joint contact force and stress previously reported have indicated a high risk of cartilage injury in high impact sports. Some potential modalities may be able to prevent OA development after performing high impact sport actives.

Conclusion: Changes in knee cartilage due to overuse or injury can lead to OA later on in life. Identifying the forces involved at the onset of articular cartilage damage would allow physicians to pinpoint the early stage of articular cartilage damage and provide proper preventive treatments to avoid OA development.

Keywords: Articular cartilage, impact injury, joint force, post-traumatic osteoarthritis.


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