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Current Nutrition & Food Science


ISSN (Print): 1573-4013
ISSN (Online): 2212-3881

Determinants of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Infants and Toddlers

Author(s): Hilary Michel, Flora Olabopo, Li Wang, Anita Nucci, Susan L Greenspan and Kumaravel Rajakumar

Volume 11 , Issue 2 , 2015

Page: [124 - 130] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1573401311999150427164144

Price: $65


Background: Resurgence of rickets and recognition of excessive prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among all age groups in the western hemisphere have refocused attention on vitamin D nutrition.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] < 30ng/mL] and characterize the determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations in 8- to 24-month-old healthy infants and toddlers living in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Methods: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured and dietary intake of vitamin D, mode of feeding, summertime sun exposure characteristics, and skin color (sun-reactive skin type and melanin index) were assessed.

Results: A total of 111 healthy 8 to 24-month-old children (mean age [±SD] 14.4 [±3.5] months; male, 51%; black, 67%) were studied. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was <30 ng/mL in 16% (n=18) of the children. Median (interquartile) 25(OH)D concentration was lower in children who were ≥13 months vs. <13 months of age [35 (31, 40.5) vs. 40 (35.8, 44.3) ng/mL, p=0.013]; with sun-reactive skin type IV and V vs. I, II, and III [36 (31, 41) vs. 44 (36.5, 48.5) ng/mL, p=0.001]; and examined during fall/winter vs. spring/summer [35.5 (32.5, 38.5) vs. 39 (32.5, 44) ng/mL, p=0.05]. Age and skin type were significant independent predictors of 25(OH)D.

Conclusions: Concentrations of 25(OH)D tend to be lower in infants and toddlers during fall/winter, and in children who are older (≥13 months vs. <13 months of age) and have darker skin tone. Benefits of enhancement of 25(OH)D concentrations during fall/winter and in children with higher sun-reactive skin type need further exploration.

Keywords: Infants, skin pigmentation, sun exposure, toddlers, vitamin D.

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