A novel hollow fiber cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography (HFCF-HPLC) was extended and used to screen flavonoid and anthraquinone active compound groups simultaneously from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this study, three cells (MCF-7, SGC7901, and MADB-106) were seeded on the inner wall of the hollow fiber employed to screen bioactive components from TCM water decoction. The variables influencing HFCFHPLC, such as cell seeding time, screening stirring rate and time, and active compound concentration, were investigated and optimized. The surface property of the hollow fiber seeded with cells, the cell survival rate under different conditions, the nonspecific binding between active centers in the fiber and the target compounds, and the repeatability and recovery of HFCF-HPLC were analyzed and validated. Certain structures of the compounds fished by HFCF-HPLC were identified after comparing the retention times of the reference substances. To verify preliminarily the binding site between the bioactive components and cells, we separated the cell membrane and cell organelle from live MCF-7 cells. We then employed the cell membrane, cell organelle, and the whole cells to screen simultaneously the active compounds. The cell fishing factor of the active compound was calculated and discussed as the index of cell-drug binding ability in HFCFHPLC. Tamoxifen as a positive control and indomethacin as a negative control were screened by HFCF-HPLC to verify the method. The results indicate that HFCF-HPLC is an effective and reliable method for the screening and analysis of bioactive components. Moreover, this method can be applied to predict bioactive candidates in TCMs.