Nesfatin-1, derived from an 82-amino-acid peptide precursor protein nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), is a highly conserved peptide across mammalian species. Initial functional and neuroanatomical studies on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the central nervous system have supported a role for NUCB2/nesfatin-1 as a novel satiety molecule. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that this neuropeptide is involved in various other processes, one of which is the stress response. Stress-associated activation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons, together with nesfatin-1’s central actions in the brain, is indicative of its significance in the stress adaptation response. Interestingly, increasing body of evidence implicates also NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in various forms of stress-associated psychopathologies, such as anxiety and depression. In this review, we will outline evidence that has significantly broadened our understanding of the biological significance of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 far beyond to be only a hypothalamic peptide with potent anorexigenic actions. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the brain seem to emerge as novel, integral regulators of the stress adaptation response.