Sarcoidosis is a systemic, granulomatous disease that can affect multiple organs and has a variable clinical course. Corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone) remain the mainstay of therapy in sarcoidosis since their first use in this disease in the 1950s. A second-line therapeutic is often added to the treatment regimen in case of intolerable side effects, inefficacy or prolonged use of steroids. Methotrexate is considered by many to be the first choice drug in second-line therapeutics of sarcoidosis. Other often used second-line drugs are azathioprine and leflunomide. No large trials comparing different treatment options have been performed in sarcoidosis. In patients with severe disease who do not respond well to first and second-line therapy, biologicals such as infliximab can be promising.
In this review, we provide a complete overview of all currently available therapeutic strategies in sarcoidosis. In addition, the gaps in current literature on sarcoidosis treatment were depicted to underline the importance of research in this mostly empiric field of medicine. Furthermore we highlight future medicine in sarcoidosis with emphasis on the role of personalised medicine.