Screening is the systematic use of a test for a health problem or risk factor when no recognized signs or symptoms would indicate the presence of that problem or risk factor. Abnormal glucose metabolism can be documented years before the onset of overt diabetes. Nowadays, prediabetes can be subdivided into impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Substantial number of subjects with either will progress to overt diabetes within years. Prediabetes bears also the increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Prehypertension is much newer term introduced by the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7) published in 2003 as systolic blood pressure from 120 to 139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure from 80 to 89 mmHg in adults (not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment). Similarly prehypertension also increased the risk of cardiovascular complications and progression to hypertension. Chronic kidney disease is also highly prevalent mainly in the elderly. It is associated with important adverse outcomes such as cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Factors associated with higher risk of chronic kidney disease include mainly hypertension, diabetes, obesity and older age. Early detection and diagnosis of chronic kidney disease may prevent the full blown disease and its end-stage requiring renal replacement therapy. The review focus on the problem of high risk population for development of diabetes, hypertension and whether time has come to focus also on the conditions predisposing to the development of chronic kidney disease.